What are Kidney Stones?
Kidney stones are solid, irregularly shaped lumps or crystals that range from a grain of sand to the size of a golf ball. Depending on the size of your kidney stone (or stone), you may not even know you have one. Even small stones can cause extreme pain when they pass through the urinary tract.
Drinking liquids can help with this process. This process can take up to 3 weeks. A large kidney stone can block the ureter (the tube that drains urine from the kidney to the bladder). When this happens, the stone can cause bleeding and block urine from leaving the body. Surgery may be needed for stones that cannot pass naturally.
Who is most likely to get kidney stones? What are the risk factors?
Caucasian men in their 30s and 40s are most likely to develop kidney stones. However, anyone can develop kidney stones.
There are several risk factors for developing kidney stones. These include:
- Not drinking enough water.
- A diet containing substances that form stones (for example, phosphate is found in meat, fish, beans, and other high-protein foods).
- Having a family history of kidney stones.
- an obstruction in the urinary tract.
- Certain medical conditions can also increase the risk of developing stones. This is because it can increase or decrease the concentration of substances that make up kidney stones.
Medical conditions may include:
- Hypercalciuria (high calcium concentration in the urine). Hypertension.
- Gout and cystic fibrosis. renal cyst.
- parathyroid disease.
- Inflammatory bowel disease and chronic diarrhea.
- Some surgical procedures include weight loss surgery or other stomach or bowel surgery.
These foods include:
Meat and poultry (animal protein). Sodium (high salt diet).
Sugar (fructose, sucrose, corn syrup).
What is the urinary tract? How does that work?
The urinary tract is essential for the body as it removes waste products and excess water. It consists of two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Each organ has an important task (in the following order).
Kidneys: The fist-sized, bean-shaped kidneys are located below the ribcage on either side of the spine. It filters 120-150 liters of blood each day to remove waste products and balance fluids. Kidneys produce 1-2 liters of urine each day.
Ureter: After the kidneys produce urine, the fluid travels down the ureter to the bladder. There is one ureter per kidney. Kidney stones can pass through the ureter or become lodged in the ureter if they are too large. Surgery may be needed if the stone is too large.
Bladder: Located between the hip bones, the bladder is an organ that stores urine. If you spread it out, it will hold about 1 and a half to 2 cups.
Urethra: Like the ureter, the urethra is the tube through which urine flows. This is the final stop in the urinary tract for urine (and kidney stones) to exit the body. This is called urination.
How long does it take for kidney stones to form?
You may have had kidney stones for years without even knowing they existed. As long as these stones remain in the kidneys, you will not feel anything. Pain from a kidney stone usually begins when it moves from the kidney. In some cases, stones may form faster - within a few months.
Talk to your doctor about your risk factors. A 24-hour urine test can be done to check the rate of stone formation.
What are the symptoms of kidney stones?
You may have had e stones in your kidneys for years and not know they are there. However, if they start to move or become very large, symptoms may appear.
Symptoms of kidney stones include:
- Pain in the lower back or side of the body. This pain may begin as a dull ache that comes and goes. It can also become serious and lead to a trip to the emergency room.
- Painful nausea and/or vomiting.
- see hematuria
- Pain when urinating. Unable to urinate.
- Feel like you need to urinate more often.
- fever or chills.
- Urine smells or is cloudy.
- Small kidney stones may not cause pain or other symptoms. These "silence stones" are expelled from the body with urine.
What are the symptoms of kidney stones in children?
The most common symptoms of kidney stones are hematuria or pain. How much pain your child feels and where it hurts depends on the location and size of the stone. Other symptoms are:
- severe colic.
- Inability to urinate (if a stone is blocking the urinary tract).
- Cloudy, foul-smelling urine, fever, chills, or weakness. It can be a sign of a serious infection.
Most childhood kidney stones remain in the kidney, but up to
Most childhood kidney stones remain in the kidney, but up to one-third can migrate from the kidney and become lodged in the ureter. Stones remaining in the kidney are often painless but can cause recurrent urinary tract infections. Anything that lodges in the ureter can cause severe colic.
What Causes Kidney Stones?
Kidney stones form from substances in the urine. Substances that combine to form stones usually pass through the urinary system. If not, the amount of urine is not enough, causing the substance to become highly concentrated and crystallize. This is usually caused by not drinking enough water. The substances that form stones are:
- Oxalate. uric acid.
- phosphoric acid.
- Cystine (rare).
- Xanthine (rare).
These and other chemicals are part of the body's waste products.
How are kidney stones diagnosed?
Your doctor will discuss your medical history and may order some tests. These tests include:
Imaging tests: X-rays, CT scans, and ultrasounds help doctors identify the size, shape, location, and number of kidney stones. These tests help your provider determine the treatment you need.
Blood Tests: Blood tests check how well your kidneys are functioning, check for infections, and look for biochemical problems that can lead to kidney stones.
Urinalysis: This test checks for signs of infection and also checks the levels of substances that form kidney stones.
How are kidney stones treated?
After diagnosis, doctors first determine whether treatment is needed. Some small kidney stones may pass out of the body when urinating. This is very painful. If your health care provider decides you need treatment, your options include drugs and surgery. dosage. Medicines can be prescribed for:
Reduce pain. Your doctor may recommend taking an over-the-counter medication, such as ibuprofen, or an intravenous anesthetic if you're in the emergency room.
It relaxes the ureter to allow the stone to pass. Commonly prescribed drugs include tamsulosin (Flomax®) and nifedipine (Adamant® or Procardia®).
Talk to your doctor before taking ibuprofen. This drug may increase the risk of kidney failure if taken during an acute attack of kidney stones. Especially in patients with a history of kidney disease and related conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.
surgery. There are four types of surgery to treat kidney stones. The first three are minimally invasive. That is, the surgeon enters the body through a natural opening (such as the urethra) or makes a small incision.
Ureteroscopy: To do this procedure, a small instrument called a ureteroscope is inserted into the urethra, through the bladder, and into the ureters. This instrument reveals kidney stones and either retrieve them into a surgical "basket" or breaks them up with a laser. These small kidney stones are easily passed out of the body through the urinary tract.
Shock Wave Lithotripsy: In this procedure, you are placed on a special operating table or bathtub. A high-energy shock wave is sent through the water to the stone. The shock waves break the stone, making it easier for the stone to leave the body.
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is considered when kidney stones cannot be treated otherwise (because there are too many stones, they are too large, they are too heavy, or they are located. In this procedure, a tube is inserted directly into the kidney through a small incision in the back.
An ultrasonic probe is then used to break up the stone and aspirate it, so no debris needs to pass through. After surgery, a urethral stent (the inner tube from the kidney to the bladder that is removed after a week) is placed. Patients are usually kept overnight for observation.
While this is the obvious solution, staying hydrated can be one of the most effective treatments for kidney stones. Increased fluid intake leads to increased urine output.
It also helps flush out small kidney stones. Increasing urine output prevents waste products from concentrating, thereby reducing the chance of kidney stones.
2. Green Tea:
Green tea (Camellia Sinensis) can be used to treat kidney stones. It can help reduce renal calcium deposition. It may also decrease urinary oxalic acid excretion. Increased water intake may also contribute to the formation of clear urine.
Raspberry berries help prevent and treat kidney stones. It lowers urinary calcium and phosphorus levels and helps remove stones from the urinary tract. It can also reduce the growth of kidney stones.
Pomegranate is a rich source of phytochemicals that are effective in relieving the burning sensation of urine. The phytochemical also exhibits muscle-relaxing properties and removes stones from the kidneys. Drinking fresh pomegranate juice can help treat kidney stones.
5. Horse gram:
Horse Gram, also known as Kulathi in Hindi, is a seed with high medicinal value. It helps treat kidney stones, in addition to many other conditions. Kristin seeds can be boiled in a small amount of water in a pressure cooker. A soup is made in the rice cooker, which is collected and consumed to relieve kidney stones.
Coconut water can help you feel refreshed and energized, but it also has medicinal properties. Drinking coconut water is a diuretic (increases urine output) and can help flush out kidney stones. A paste of coconut blossom and cottage cheese is also effective against kidney stones.
Parsley is a well-known herb that is widely used in the kitchen. Apart from its many medicinal benefits, parsley also helps prevent kidney disease. Parsley can be incorporated into meals and dishes. It can also be added to salads, soups, and vegetables